Before entering the medical clinic to start their apprenticeship that would involve assisting the physicians and medical staff, students are required to review the following and become familiar with concepts outlined below.

Universal Precautions

Universal precautions entail basic precautionary methods that those in the healthcare field should use. This section covers hand washing, surgical hand scrubbing, how to use sterile gloves and gowns, and how to handle infection within a clinical setting.

Emergency Care Training

Emergency care training includes all basic methods used on-site when an emergency arises, and can be used to save many lives if implemented properly. This section covers a broad overview of the body’s anatomy and physiology, resuscitation guidelines, how to perform CPR in various scenarios, and how to prevent and stop choking in various scenarios as well.

Vital Signs

Vital signs are basic evaluations that can be taken of a patient in every scenario and can be used to determine what methods should be used to improve their health or even save their life. This section covers how to take and read a blood pressure measurement, how to take a pulse, and how to take other vital signs such as if the patient is conscious, breathing, etc.

History and Physical Examination

History and Physical Examination are very important aspects of the physician-patient conversation that every student must learn before entering a clinical environment. By taking history and gathering data through the physical examination, a physician is able to better understand and diagnose a patient’s maladies and give them the best treatment available. This section covers how to implement effective communication skills, how to perform patient-centered interviews, how to identify chief complaints, how to take a full history of previous illnesses, and how to perform a physical examination.

Venipuncture and starting IV lines

Venipuncture and IV lines describe how to implement intravenous cannulation, providing fluids, nutrients, drugs, or other substances to a patient in order to treat them or save their life. This section covers information regarding veins and how to find them, how to perform venipuncture using the butterfly method, how to perform IV cannulation on various parts of the body, and how to perform all methods within infants and children.