Introduction to Clinical Medicine
Religion, Philosophy, and Medicine
There was a time when physicians and priests were one and the same. However, over the years, it appears that religion and medicine have gone their sperate ways which is very unfortunate.
This is despite the fact that 80 percent of people pray for themselves and 87 percent have prayed for others, according to Gallup survey of 1,714 Americans. What is even more amazing is that 76% of doctors stated that they believe in God, compared with only 39% of scientists, and about 70% of Americans overall according to a University of Chicago study.
Medical Ethics is and has always been of paramount importance in the practice of medicine. As more and more physicians are becoming employed in the US, ethical issues are bound to rise as these employed physicians may be coerced to have allegiance to their employers rather than to their patients.
Basic Medical Sciences
Allergy and Immunology
Identification, management and treatment of allergic diseases require expertise in testing for allergens, diagnosing specific diseases, such as asthma, and examining the latest research and treatment protocols. You will learn how to perform tests for allergies and immune deficiencies such as pulmonary function and skin prick tests, read chest X-rays for thymic shadow, interpret results of pulmonary function tests, and synthesize clinical histories and exam results for patient workups.
Anesthesiologists are critical personnel during the performance of any surgery. Anesthesiology comprises a study of all types of anesthetics utilized to keep a patient both comfortable and safe during surgical procedures, the protocols for monitoring all vital signs during surgery, and ensuring that the patient recovers from the anesthetics administered once the surgery is over. You will be able to perform airway evaluations and will understand basic ventilation strategies and fluid management, as well as local and general anesthetic indications and risk factors, based upon patient history. You will also be able to identify and monitor risk factors during intraoperative and postoperative care.
Diseases of the heart and circulatory system are numerous and serious. This clinical will involve a study of the prevention, diagnosis, causes, and treatment/management protocols for diseases related specifically to the heart and to the vascular systems. You will learn how to perform and record appropriate physical examinations related to the cardiovascular system, interpret results of diagnostic testing and assist in the development of treatment plans and/or make recommendations for surgical procedures.
Diseases of the skin, hair, scalp, nails and genitals, including skin cancers and immune-related skin disorders, all fall within the specialty of dermatology. Emphasis is placed on diagnosis and treatment of skin disorders and the most current research in therapies. Course objectives include an understanding or cutaneous anatomy and pathology, knowledge of common skin diseases, and the ability to interpret microscopic slides.
Ear, Nose, and Throat
This clinical will address all current diseases and disorders of the ear, nose, sinuses, larynx, mouth and throat, as well as structures in the head and neck areas related to these functions. Emphasis will be placed on diagnosis and both non-surgical and surgical treatment protocols. By the end of the course you will be able to understand the pathogenesis of otorhinolaryngologic conditions, perform diagnoses, and develop treatment plans; you will also have practical understanding of corrective surgical procedures and post-operative management.
The field of emergency medicine involves treatment for any types of trauma, as well as for chronic and acute conditions that may cause an individual to seek emergency care. Sub-sections of this clinical will deal with trauma from injury, medical toxicology, acute diseases, and onset of acute conditions related to chronic illness or disease. You will learn how to recognize symptom as common, or urgent, take appropriate patient histories and develop diagnoses for symptom presentations. You will also learn how to interpret the results of a variety of tests, and make decisions relative to the need for consultation or admission.
Hormonal imbalances may be responsible for a number of conditions. In this course, you will learn the causes of hormone imbalances as well as the treatment procedures for the symptoms, conditions, and diseases that these imbalances cause. Special emphasis will be on diabetes and thyroid disorders, and current methods and treatments for restoring normal hormonal balance. You will develop an ability to evaluate, develop treatment plans, and to monitor efficacy of treatments for common disorders and to develop enough familiarity with uncommon disorders to make determinations to evaluate the need for consultation with sub-specialists.
This clinical will provide a thorough study of both chronic and acute diseases and disorders of all organs and systems that relate to consumption and digestion. Any disorder associated with the stomach, esophagus, intestines, and the complete biliary system will be addressed, along with current best practices related to diagnosis, treatment, and surgical procedures. By the end of this course, you will be able to complete patient history and physical examinations to prepare a diagnostic workup for common gastrointestinal disorders, interpret laboratory and imaging tests, prepare treatment plans and/or recognize the need for surgery.
General Internal Medicine
Emphasis will be on the pathology of human diseases with focus on cardiovascular, hematologic, pulmonary, immunologic, endocrine, and rheumatologic system, oncology and infectious diseases, their cause, treatment and management. You will learn how to complete and record and appropriate medical history based upon symptom presentation and to determine what types of diagnostic tests should be performed to confirm a suspected diagnosis. Based upon a diagnosis, you will then be able to establish and implement a treatment protocol and/or make recommendations for admission and/or surgery.
Genomics will involve an integrated study of genome characteristics and sequencing, transcriptomics, comparative genomics and genomic data analysis, as well a genetically caused diseases and disorders. New research in biogenetic engineering and oncology treatments will also be addressed. You will learn the types of genomic testing available and develop and understanding of their uses in the screening, diagnosis and management of disease. You will also learn treatment protocols based upon the latest research in the field and make recommendations for treatments based upon patient history and presentations.
Hematology and Oncology
Clinical hematology will include a study of the diagnosis, treatment protocols, and management of blood cell disorders and diseases, as well as the physiology of hematopoiesis. New treatments and management of oncological diseases shall also be addressed. You will learn diagnostic procedures related to disorders and diseases of the blood, methods of interpreting tests, both laboratory and imaging, how to assess tumors as a result of imaging and biopsies, and the chemotherapy protocols and other therapies for various types of cancers. You will also learn the effect of immune deficiencies in the treatment of cancers and the most current protocols for addressing those issues.
Course study shall include the principles of microbiology as related to infectious diseases and pharmacological treatments of these diseases. Emphasis will be placed upon characteristics and properties of bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi, the diseases they cause, and the mechanisms of causality and manifestations. You will learn the physical and chemical methods for the control of microorganisms and how these are used to prevent and control infectious diseases. You will also learn to interpret laboratory test results and to design therapeutic treatment plans for a variety of bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal diseases determining the comparative efficacy of vaccines, antibiotics or other protocols. You will also be introduced to emerging pathogens and their threats.
Goals of this course include mastery of the methods of testing and diagnosis of acute and chronic renal disorders, diseases, and failure, determination of proper treatment protocols based upon test results and symptoms, and long-term care and management. You will learn how to identify the symptoms and signs of the most common renal disorders and diseases including injury, failure, nephrotic syndrome and glomerulonephritis. You will be able to interpret lab and imaging test results and to design specific therapeutic treatments including pharmacological, dialysis, and/or surgery.
Neurology and Sleep Medicine
Neurology is a relatively new field of medicine and clinical practice which has as its goal the research and recording of the electrical activity of the brain, spine and nerves. Emphasis will be placed upon diagnoses and treatment of nervous system and sleep disorders, along with connections between brain activity and certain psychiatric disorders. You will learn how to conduct a neurologic examination and to read and interpret EEG, CT, and MRI results. You will also be able to recognize symptoms that may signal a neurological disease (e.g. issues of cognition, language, hearing, vision, motor and autonomic functions and equilibrium), and develop an approach to management of those diseases, including the need to request additional consultation.
Obstetrics and Gynecology
This course shall cover medical care to female patients in the following clinical areas: diagnosis and treatment of gynecological disorders and diseases; maternal-fetal medicine and related surgeries, including prenatal and post-natal care; ovarian, uterine, and cervical cancer diagnoses and treatments; menopausal issues and treatments. Specific short units of study shall include natural, drug-assisted and Caesarian deliveries. You will learn procedures for taking accurate and comprehensive patient histories, for determining the appropriate types of laboratory and imaging testing, and for interpreting test results. You will be able to determine treatment protocols for normal and high-risk pregnancies and for fetal testing to determine disorders. You will also learn appropriate diagnostic testing procedures for gynecological cancers as well as treatment protocols.
Coursework and clinicals shall include the following sub-sections: a study of eye examination protocols; the diagnosis of ophthalmologic disorders and diseases and treatments, surgical and non-surgical. Students shall be exposed to sub-specialties in cornea, retina, oculoplastics, glaucoma, neurophthalmology, and pediatric vision disorders. Students will learn how to perform and interpret normal eye examinations and tests for eye disorders and diseases including macular degeneration retinal detachment, cataracts, and glaucoma. Students will also be able to identify vision changes due to neuropathy, hypertension, age and diabetes. Students will determine appropriate treatment protocols for a variety of disorders and diseases.
Course emphasis is placed upon the recognition of common musculoskeletal injury and disease, based upon patient history, examination and imaging. Practice in the development of suitable treatment options and protocols will be included as well. Students will learn how to perform basic osteopathic examinations and to recommend further tests, including X-ray, CT and MRI imaging in order to determine patient need for surgery and develop rehabilitation and therapeutic protocols for post-surgical patients. Students will also learn how to evaluate congenital deformities that could impact intraoperative and postoperative care.
The course goal is to develop competencies in palliative care. Training shall occur in core areas of symptom and pain management, coordination of care for the terminally ill of all age ranges, and involvement of other medical professionals as appropriate. Other aspects of the course relate to ethics and communication skills. Through this course, you will extend your understanding of palliative care and management of symptoms and pain for the patient; you will also understand the need for a team approach as care is provided by medical, sociological, psychological, and spiritual professionals in the care of terminally ill patients.
This course covers a wide range of medical diagnoses, care and treatment of children. Units of study and clinical practice shall include normal growth and development, diagnosis and treatment of common pediatric infections and diseases, immunization protocols, serious injuries, acute cardio-pulmonary emergencies, blood disorders, and cancers. Upon completion of this course and clinical, you will be able to describe the causes and presentations of most common pediatric diseases and disorders. You will be able to take a complete patient history, perform a pediatric physical examination and prepare a written report of any diagnostic and/or clinical findings. You will also develop treatment protocols for common acute and chronic conditions.
Pharmacology and Therapeutics
This course is designed to provide a fundamental knowledge of the classes of drugs used to treat disorders, infections, and diseases, their indication, their clinical effects, their mechanisms, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, adverse effects, and drug interactions. When you complete the course, you will be able to utilize a medically-sound approach to the development of drug therapies for patients, including selection, dosage, and patient monitoring, as well evaluation of the efficacy of treatment. You will know how to monitor patient responses to pharmacological treatments and to alter treatment protocols accordingly.
This course provides students with the core principles of major disease prevention and delivery of health and prevention education services to local communities. Student will learn how to assess prevention education needs, to develop interventions and to conduct evaluative research related to health and prevention. Working with other community resources to achieve health and prevention goals will also be a focus of this coursework, including participation in education, immunization efforts and other prevention activities.
The purpose of this course is to familiarize students with the major classes of psychiatric disorders and illnesses. Units of study will include diagnosis, assessment and management protocols, including pharmacological interventions. Additional study will focus on neurobiological aspects of mental illness. Students will learn the general characteristics of a variety of mental illnesses, based upon professional classifications. They will be able to identify presentations of these disorders in patients and recommend further diagnostics to determine presence of the illness, including psychiatric evaluations and neurological testing. Students will learn the classifications of pharmacological therapies, and be able to make recommendations for treatment plans.
Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine
Course content includes a thorough study of the prevention, causes, diagnoses and treatment/management protocols for critically ill patients with lung disease. Sub-units include specific content related to emphysema, chronic bronchitis, cystic fibrosis and cancers. Students will gain experience in taking patient histories, conducting physical examinations, and interpreting results of diagnostic testing. Students will also have experience in development of patient treatment plans including pharmacological and other therapeutic protocols. All students will be able to perform technical procedures, including intubation, biopsies, chest tube placement, and maintenance or mechanical ventilation equipment.
This course prepares students in areas of radiography, to include X-rays, CT, and MRI imaging. Sub-sections of coursework relate to chest, abdomen, spine, upper and lower GI series, extremities, biliary and urinary imaging and the appropriate imaging procedures for each, along with skill development in evaluating results of imaging. Students will learn how to interpret radiological findings, perform diagnoses based upon those findings, and make treatment recommendations, including understanding the need for a specialist when appropriate.
Students will familiarize themselves with the most common musculoskeletal disorders and diseases, as well as diseases of connective tissues. Skill development includes diagnosis of condition such as arthritis, as well as arthrocentesis and joint injections. Treatment protocols from medicine to equipment to therapy and to surgery will be addressed. Students will be able to perform a full musculoskeletal exam and develop a report that includes is and a full patient history. Based upon these and additional testing as warranted, students will provide diagnoses and make recommendations for treatment, to include physical therapies, pharmacological treatments, and surgery.
Sports medicine coursework will include modules in anatomy and physiology, first aid, injury prevention, diagnosis through symptoms and imaging, treatment protocols, surgery and physical therapy. Two smaller sub-sets relate to nutrition and sports psychology. Students who complete this course will have the ability to perform a full physical examination in order to determine fitness for athletic participation; perform diagnostic exams and recommend other diagnostic testing to determine presence of injuries – muscular, skeletal, and neurological; and develop treatment plans for injuries, to include pharmacological, physical therapeutic regimens, and/or surgery.
Students who complete this course and clinicals will be able to understand procedures for diagnosis of the need for surgery and for care of patients who require surgery. Protocols for anesthesiology, operating room environments, and post-operative treatment will be covered. Additional units relate to surgical anatomy and identification of various surgical procedures performed by physicians in medical specialties. Students will be able to take a complete medical history of a surgical patient and provide a full workup prior to surgery; students will learn surgical protocols and procedures for pre-operative, intraoperative, and post-operative patient care, as well as provide recommendations for post-operative procedures.
This course provides a broad immersion into disorders and diseases of the urinary tract. Student will learn diagnostic procedures and treatment protocols that include pharmacology and surgery. They will be able to complete full patient histories, physical examinations, and recommend appropriate diagnostic testing. They will also interpret results of testing to provide a final diagnosis and development of a treatment plan.